Entry of Coronavirus into host cells is mediated by the trimeric transmembrane spike (S) glycoprotein(fig1). S glycoprotein is surface-exposed and mediates entry into the host cells by binding to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, which makes S glycoprotein the major target of neutralizing antibodies and the focus of therapeutic and vaccine design.
A model that simulates the infection of the SARS-CoV-2 is designed by replacing the envelope glycoprotein in the lentivirus vector with the S protein. Neutralizing antibodies blocking S protein(Fig.2) and receptor binding could prevent the virus from infecting host cells. By detecting the luminescence of target cells, it is possible to screen or verify the activity of the neutralizing antibody.
Fig.1 Pseudovirus with S glycoprotein as the envelope protein
Fig.2 Neutralizing antibodies preventing the pseudovirus from entering host cells
The pseudovirus can effectively entry the target cell line
Positive antibodies can effectively inhibit pseudovirus entries
Best cell line and clones are used as target cells